The Simple Past Tense...Irragular Verbs

*Simple past tense yani geçmiş zamanı iki şekilde inceleyeceğiz. Durum cümleleri ve eylem cümleleri olarak.
- Geçmiş zamanda durum cümlelerinde kullanılan iki yardımcı fiil vardır. Bunlar, was ve were dür. Geçmişte içinde bulunulan durumları anlatır.
Examples:
- I was at home yesterday.
(Dün evdeydim.)
- Tom was 20 years old last year.
(Tom geçen yıl 20 yaşındaydı.)
- My mother wasn"t at home last weekend.
(Annem geçen haftasonu evde değildi.)
- It was our cat two months ago.
(O, 2 ay önce bizim kedimizdi.)
- You were very happy last evening.
(Dün akşam çok mutluydun)
- Sally and Julia weren"t at school on Wednesday.
(Sally ve Julia çarşamda okulda değildi.)
- We were in Çeşme last summer.
(Geçen yaz Çeşme"deydik.)

* Durum bildiren bu cümlelerin sorusu da yardımcı fiil ve öznenin yeri değiştirilerek yapılmaktadır.
- Were you at home yesterday? (Dün evde miydin?)
Yes, I was.
- How was Mary"s birthday party? (Mary" nin doğumgünü partisi nasıldı?)
It was great. (Harikaydı.)

*Past tense te durum cümlelerinde olumsuz yapabilmek için ise yardımcı fiillere not takısı getirilmektedir.

* Geçmiş zaman cümlelerinde kullanılan zaman zarfları :
- yesterday (dün)
- two days ago (2 gün önce)
- last year (geçen yıl)
- last week (geçen hafta)

** Geçmiş zamanda durum cümlelerinden hariç bir de eylem cümleleri vardır. Bunlar geçmişte yapılan işleri belirtmektedir. Bu cümlelerde kullanılan fiillerin geçmişi bildirebilmeleri için 2. halinde kullanılması gerekmektedir. Fiiller de düzenli (regular) ve düzensiz (irregular) olmak üzere iki türlüdür. Düzenli fiilleri geçmiş hale çevirmek için, filler sondaki hecelerine göre -d, -ed ya da -ied takılarını almaktadır. Örneğin:
- move -----> moved
- watch -----> watched
- study -----> studied

Düzenli fiiller bu şekildedir. Düzensiz fiiller ise tamamen farklı bir hal almaktadır.
- buy -----> bought
- come -----> came
- write -----> wrote
- go -----> went

* Bunlardan sonra cümleler oluşturmaya başlayabiliriz.
- I was at home last night. I stuied for Maths exam. (Dün gece evdeydim Matemeatik sınavına çalıştım.)
- We went to Antalya for holiday last summer. (Geçen yaz tatilde Antalya"ya gittik)
- My sister wrote five letters to her friends yesterday. (Ablam dün arkadaşlarına beş mektup yazdı.)
- They bought a new car last weekend. (Onlar geçen hafta yeni bir araba aldılar.)
- Students listened to the songs during break time. (Öğrenciler mola boyunca müzik dinlediler.)
* Eylem cümlelerinin olumsuzu durum cimlelerine göre biraz karmaşıktır. Bu kez, olumsuz yapmak için sadece not değil de did not yada didn"t kullanılmaktadır. Ayrıca, olumsuz yaptığımız cümlelerin fiilleri 1. halleriyle kullanılıyor. Geçmiş zamanın düz cümlesinde fillerin 2. hali kullanılırken, olumsuz cümlede 1. hali kullanılmaktadır.
Şimdi yukarıda örnek olarak verdiğimiz cümlelerin olumsuzlarını yapalım:

- I was at home last night. I stuied for Maths exam.
I wasn"t at home last night. I didn"t study for Maths exam.
- We went to Antalya for holiday last summer.
We didn"t go to Antalya for holiday last summer.
- My sister wrote five letters to her friends yesterday.
My sister didn"t write five letter to her friends.
- They bought a new car last weekend.
They didn"t buy a new car last weekend.
- Students listened to the songs during break time.
Students didn"t listen to the songs during break time.

* did olumsuz cümleler haricinde bir de eylem cümlelerinin sorusunu yapmak için kullanılmaktadır. Hem yes/ no sorularda hem -wh sorularda did kullanılmaktadır. Soru cümlelerinde de fiil 2. halde değil, 1. halde kalmaktadır.
- Did you go to the school yesterday? (Dün okula gittin mi?)
No, I didn"t. (Hayır, gitmedim.)
- What did you do last evening? (Dün akşam ne yaptın?)
I watched television. (Televizyon izledim.)
- When did they go to the zoo? (Onlar hayvanat bahçesine ne zaman gittiler?)
They went to the zoo last weekend. (Onlar hayvanat bahçesine geçen hafta sonu gittiler.)


IRREGULAR VERBS
AInfinitive - Simple Past - Past Participle
arise - arose - arisen
awake - awakened / awoke - awakened / awoken

B
backslide - backslid - backslidden / backslid
be - was, were - been
bear - bore - born / borne
beat - beat - beaten / beat
become - became - become
begin - began - begun
bend - bent - bent
bet - bet / betted - bet / betted
bid - bid / bade - bidden
bid - bid - bid
bind - bound - bound
bite - bit - bitten
bleed - bled - bled
blow - blew - blown
break - broke - broken
breed - bred - bred
bring - brought - brought
broadcast - broadcast / broadcasted - broadcast / broadcasted
browbeat - browbeat - browbeaten / browbeat
build - built - built
burn - burned / burnt - burned / burnt
burst - burst - burst
bust - busted / bust - busted / bust
buy - bought - bought

C
cast- cast - cast
catch - caught - caught
choose - chose - chosen
cling - clung - clung
clothe - clothed / clad - clothed / clad
come - came - come
cost - cost - cost
creep - crept - crept
crossbreed - crossbred - crossbred
cut - cut - cut

D
daydream- daydreamed / daydreamt - daydreamed / daydreamt
deal - dealt - dealt
dig - dug - dug
disprove - disproved - disproved / disproven
dive- dove / dived - dived
dive - dived / dove - dived
do - did - done
draw - drew - drawn
dream - dreamed / dreamt - dreamed / dreamt
drink - drank - drunk
drive - drove - driven
dwell - dwelt / dwelled - dwelt / dwelled

E
eat - ate - eaten

F
fall - fell - fallen
feed - fed - fed
feel - felt - felt
fight - fought - fought
find - found - found
fit - fitted / fit - fitted / fit
fit - fit / fitted - fit / fitted
flee - fled - fled
fling - flung - flung
fly - flew - flown
forbid - forbade - forbidden
forecast - forecast - forecast
forego - forewent - foregone
foresee - foresaw - foreseen
foretell- foretold - foretold
forget - forgot - forgotten / forgot
forgive - forgave - forgiven
forsake - forsook - forsaken
freeze - froze - frozen
frostbite - frostbit - frostbitten

G
get - got - gotten / got
give - gave - given
go - went - gone
grind - ground - ground
grow - grew - grown

H
handwrite - handwrote - handwritten
hang - hung - hung
have - had - had
hear - heard - heard
hew - hewed - hewn / hewed
hide - hid - hidden
hit - hit - hit
hold - held - held
hurt - hurt - hurt

I
inbreed - inbred - inbred
inlay - inlaid - inlaid
input - input / inputted - input / inputted
interbreed - interbred - interbred
interweave - interwove / interweaved - interwoven / interweaved
interwind - interwound - interwound

K
keep - kept - kept
kneel- knelt / kneeled - knelt / kneeled
knit - knitted / knit - knitted / knit
know - knew - known

L
lay - laid - laid
lead - led - led
lean - leaned / leant - leaned / leant
leap - leaped / leapt - leaped / leapt
learn - learned / learnt - learned / learnt
leave - left - left
lend - lent - lent
let - let - let
lie - lay - lain
lie - lied - lied
light- lit / lighted - lit / lighted
lose - lost - lost

M
make - made - made
mean - meant - meant
meet - met - met
miscast - miscast - miscast
misdeal - misdealt - misdealt
misdo - misdid - misdone
mishear - misheard - misheard
mislay - mislaid - mislaid
mislead - misled - misled
mislearn - mislearned / mislearnt - mislearned / mislearnt
misread - misread - misread
misset - misset - misset
misspeak - misspoke - misspoken
misspell - misspelled / misspelt - misspelled / misspelt
misspend - misspent - misspent
mistake - mistook - mistaken
misteach - mistaught - mistaught
misunderstand - misunderstood - misunderstood
miswrite - miswrote - miswritten
mow - mowed - mowed / mown

O
offset - offset - offset
outbid - outbid - outbid
outbreed - outbred - outbred
outdo - outdid - outdone
outdraw - outdrew - outdrawn
outdrink - outdrank - outdrunk
outdrive - outdrove - outdriven
outfight - outfought - outfought
outfly - outflew - outflown
outgrow - outgrew - outgrown
outleap - outleaped / outleapt- outleaped / outleapt
outride - outrode - outridden
outrun - outran - outrun
outsell - outsold - outsold
outshine - outshined / outshone - outshined / outshone
outshoot - outshot - outshot
outsing - outsang - outsung
outsit - outsat - outsat
outsleep - outslept - outslept
outsmell - outsmelled / outsmelt - outsmelled / outsmelt
outspeak - outspoke - outspoken
outspeed - outsped - outsped
outspend - outspent - outspent
outswear - outswore - outsworn
outswim - outswam - outswum
outthink - outthought - outthought
outthrow - outthrew - outthrown
outwrite - outwrote - outwritten
overbid - overbid - overbid
overbreed - overbred - overbred
overbuild - overbuilt - overbuilt
overbuy - overbought - overbought
overcome - overcame - overcome
overdo - overdid - overdone
overdraw - overdrew - overdrawn
overdrink - overdrank - overdrunk
overeat - overate - overeaten
overfeed - overfed - overfed
overhang - overhung - overhung
overhear - overheard - overheard
overlay - overlaid - overlaid
overpay - overpaid - overpaid
override - overrode - overridden
overrun - overran - overrun
oversee - oversaw - overseen
oversell - oversold - oversold
oversew - oversewed - oversewn / oversewed
overshoot - overshot - overshot
oversleep - overslept - overslept
overspeak - overspoke - overspoken
overspend - overspent - overspent
overspill - overspilled / overspilt - overspilled / overspilt
overtake - overtook - overtaken
overthink - overthought - overthought
overthrow - overthrew - overthrown
overwind - overwound - overwound
overwrite - overwrote - overwritten

P
partake - partook - partaken
pay - paid - paid
plead - pleaded / pled - pleaded / pled
prebuild - prebuilt - prebuilt
predo - predid - predone
premake - premade - premade
prepay - prepaid - prepaid
presell - presold - presold
preset - preset - preset
preshrink - preshrank - preshrunk
proofread - proofread - proofread
prove - proved - proven / proved
put - put - put

Q
quit - quit / quitted - quit / quitted

R
read - read (sounds like "red") - read (sounds like "red")
reawake - reawoke - reawaken
rebid - rebid - rebid
rebind - rebound - rebound
rebroadcast - rebroadcast / rebroadcasted - rebroadcast / rebroadcasted
rebuild - rebuilt - rebuilt
recast - recast - recast
recut - recut - recut
redeal - redealt - redealt
redo - redid - redone
redraw - redrew - redrawn
refit (replace parts) - refit / refitted - refit / refitted
refit (retailor)- refitted / refit - refitted / refit
regrind - reground - reground
regrow - regrew - regrown
rehang - rehung - rehung
rehear - reheard - reheard
reknit - reknitted / reknit - reknitted / reknit
relay (for example tiles)- relaid - relaid
relearn - relearned / relearnt - relearned / relearnt
relight - relit / relighted - relit / relighted
remake - remade - remade
repay - repaid - repaid
reread - reread - reread
rerun - reran - rerun
resell - resold - resold
resend - resent - resent
reset - reset - reset
resew - resewed - resewn / resewed
retake - retook - retaken
reteach - retaught - retaught
retear - retore - retorn
retell - retold - retold
rethink - rethought - rethought
retread - retread - retread
retrofit - retrofitted / retrofit - retrofitted / retrofit
rewake - rewoke / rewaked - rewaken / rewaked
rewear - rewore - reworn
reweave - rewove / reweaved - rewoven / reweaved
rewed - rewed / rewedded - rewed / rewedded
rewet - rewet / rewetted - rewet / rewetted
rewin - rewon - rewon
rewind - rewound - rewound
rewrite - rewrote - rewritten
rid - rid - rid
ride - rode - ridden
ring - rang - rung
rise - rose - risen
roughcast - roughcast - roughcast
run - ran - run

S
sand-cast - sand-cast - sand-cast
saw - sawed - sawed / sawn
say - said - said
see - saw - seen
seek - sought - sought
sell - sold - sold
send - sent - sent
set - set - set
sew - sewed - sewn / sewed
shake - shook - shaken
shave - shaved - shaved / shaven
shear - sheared - sheared / shorn
shed - shed - shed
shine - shined / shone - shined / shone
shit - shit / shat / shitted - shit/ shat / shitted
shoot - shot - shot
show - showed - shown / showed
shrink - shrank / shrunk - shrunk
shut - shut - shut
sing - sang - sung
sink - sank / sunk - sunk
sit - sat - sat
slay (kill) - slew / slayed - slain / slayed
sleep - slept - slept
slide - slid - slid
sling - slung - slung
slink - slinked / slunk - slinked / slunk
slit - slit - slit
smell - smelled / smelt - smelled / smelt
sneak - sneaked / snuck - sneaked / snuck
sow - sowed - sown / sowed
speak - spoke - spoken
speed - sped / speeded - sped / speeded
spell - spelled / spelt - spelled / spelt
spend - spent - spent
spill - spilled / spilt - spilled / spilt
spin - spun - spun
spit - spit / spat - spit / spat
split - split - split
spoil - spoiled / spoilt - spoiled / spoilt
spread - spread - spread
spring - sprang / sprung - sprung
stand - stood - stood
steal - stole - stolen
stick - stuck - stuck
sting - stung - stung
stink - stunk / stank - stunk
strew - strewed - strewn / strewed
stride - strode - stridden
strike (delete)- struck - stricken
strike (hit)- struck - struck / stricken
string - strung - strung
strive - strove / strived - striven / strived
sublet - sublet - sublet
sunburn - sunburned / sunburnt - sunburned / sunburnt
swear - swore - sworn
sweat - sweat / sweated - sweat / sweated
sweep - swept - swept
swell - swelled - swollen / swelled
swim - swam - swum
swing - swung - swung

T
take - took - taken
teach - taught - taught
tear - tore - torn
telecast - telecast - telecast
tell - told - told
think - thought - thought
throw - threw - thrown
thrust - thrust - thrust
tread - trod - trodden / trod
typecast - typecast - typecast
typeset - typeset - typeset
typewrite - typewrote - typewritten

U
unbend - unbent - unbent
unbind - unbound - unbound
unclothe - unclothed / unclad - unclothed / unclad
underbid - underbid - underbid
undercut - undercut - undercut
underfeed - underfed - underfed
undergo - underwent - undergone
underlie - underlay - underlain
undersell - undersold - undersold
underspend - underspent - underspent
understand - understood - understood
undertake - undertook - undertaken
underwrite - underwrote - underwritten
undo - undid - undone
unfreeze - unfroze - unfrozen
unhang - unhung - unhung
unhide - unhid - unhidden
unknit - unknitted / unknit - unknitted / unknit
unlearn - unlearned / unlearnt - unlearned / unlearnt
unsew - unsewed - unsewn / unsewed
unsling - unslung - unslung
unspin - unspun - unspun
unstick - unstuck - unstuck
unstring - unstrung - unstrung
unweave - unwove / unweaved - unwoven / unweaved
unwind - unwound - unwound
uphold - upheld - upheld
upset - upset - upset

W
wake - woke / waked - woken / waked
waylay - waylaid - waylaid
wear - wore - worn
weave - wove / weaved - woven / weaved
wed - wed / wedded - wed / wedded
weep - wept - wept
wet - wet / wetted - wet / wetted
win - won - won
wind - wound - wound
withdraw - withdrew - withdrawn
withhold - withheld - withheld
withstand - withstood - withstood
wring - wrung - wrung
write - wrote - written

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